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Differences What are the advantages of each

Front view of GeForce GTX 680

Reasons to consider the
Nvidia GeForce GTX 680

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Much higher clock speed 1,006 MHz vs 648 MHz More than 55% higher clock speed
Much higher effective memory clock speed 6,008 MHz vs 2,484 MHz Around 2.5x higher effective memory clock speed
Significantly better floating-point performance 3,090 GFLOPS vs 708.5 GFLOPS More than 4.2x better floating-point performance
Significantly higher texture rate 128.8 GTexel/s vs 51.8 GTexel/s Around 2.5x higher texture rate
More memory 2,048 MB vs 1,024 MB 2x more memory
Significantly more shading units 1,536 vs 240 1296 more shading units
Higher pixel rate 32.2 GPixel/s vs 20.7 GPixel/s More than 55% higher pixel rate
Slightly higher memory bandwidth 192.3 GB/s vs 159 GB/s More than 20% higher memory bandwidth
More texture mapping units 128 vs 80 48 more texture mapping units
Higher memory clock speed 1,502 MHz vs 1,242 MHz More than 20% higher memory clock speed
Front view of GeForce GTX 285 Mac

Reasons to consider the
Nvidia GeForce GTX 285 Mac

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Significantly wider memory bus 512 bit vs 256 bit 2x wider memory bus

Features Key features of the GeForce GTX 680  vs 285 Mac 

memory bandwidth Rate at which data can be read from or stored in onboard memory

GeForce GTX 680
192.3 GB/s
GPU clock has also been increased, while memory remains at the NVIDIA reference clock frequency.
GeForce GTX 680 | by techPowerUp! (Aug, 2012)

pixel rate Number of pixels a graphics card can render to the screen every second

GeForce GTX 680
32.2 GPixel/s
GeForce GTX 285 Mac
20.7 GPixel/s
To accomplish that with the Kepler-based GTX 680, and go on to seek performance-leadership is a very tough ask, and takes some very gritty engineering.
GeForce GTX 680 | by techPowerUp! (Mar, 2012)

texture rate Speed at which a graphics card can perform texture mapping

GeForce GTX 680
128.8 GTexel/s
GeForce GTX 285 Mac
51.8 GTexel/s
Its design goals are to raise performance and energy-efficiency over the previous generation "Fermi" architecture.
GeForce GTX 680 | by techPowerUp! (Mar, 2012)

floating point performance How fast the gpu can crunch numbers

GeForce GTX 680
3,090 GFLOPS
GeForce GTX 285 Mac
708.5 GFLOPS
However it does appear that Apple’s stonkingly original design teams did actually release a flavour of MacBooks, which cannot handle graphics-intensive work or games.
GeForce GTX 285 Mac | by Nick-Farrell (Jan, 2014)

shading units Subcomponents of the gpu, these run in parallel to enable fast pixel shading

So the number of textures a shader can reference is practically unlimited, or 1 million if you want to talk in figures.
GeForce GTX 680 | by techPowerUp! (Mar, 2012)

texture mapping units Built into each gpu, these resize and rotate bitmaps for texturing scenes

Specifications Full list of technical specs

gpu

GeForce GTX 680  vs
285 Mac 
GPU brand Nvidia Nvidia
GPU name GK104 GT200 B3
Market Desktop Desktop
Clock speed 1,006 MHz 648 MHz
Is dual GPU No No
Reference card None None

raw performance

Shading units 1,536 240
Texture mapping units 128 80
Render output processors 32 32
Pixel rate 32.2 GPixel/s 20.7 GPixel/s
Texture rate 128.8 GTexel/s 51.8 GTexel/s
Floating-point performance 3,090 GFLOPS 708.5 GFLOPS

memory

GeForce GTX 680  vs
285 Mac 
Memory clock speed 1,502 MHz 1,242 MHz
Effective memory clock speed 6,008 MHz 2,484 MHz
Memory bus 256 bit 512 bit
Memory 2,048 MB 1,024 MB
Memory type GDDR5 GDDR3
Memory bandwidth 192.3 GB/s 159 GB/s

noise and power

TDP 195W 204W

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