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Differences What are the advantages of each

Front view of Radeon R9 280X

Reasons to consider the
Generic Radeon R9 280X

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Higher effective memory clock speed 6,000 MHz vs 5,000 MHz 20% higher effective memory clock speed
Slightly better floating-point performance 3,482 GFLOPS vs 3,046 GFLOPS Around 15% better floating-point performance
Higher turbo clock speed 1,000 MHz vs 925 MHz Around 10% higher turbo clock speed
Higher memory clock speed 1,500 MHz vs 1,250 MHz 20% higher memory clock speed
Slightly more shading units 2,048 vs 1,792 256 more shading units
Slightly more compute units 32 vs 28 4 more compute units
Front view of Radeon R9 280

Reasons to consider the
AMD Radeon R9 280

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Lower TDP 200W vs 250W 20% lower TDP

Features Key features of the Radeon R9 280X  vs 280 

pixel rate Number of pixels a graphics card can render to the screen every second

Radeon R9 280X
27.2 GPixel/s
Radeon R9 280
27.2 GPixel/s
Our benchmarks here today will likely help determine if NVIDIA is as far behind the performance per dollar curve as we think they might be.
Radeon R9 280 | by Ryan-Shrout (Oct, 2013)

floating point performance How fast the gpu can crunch numbers

Radeon R9 280X
3,482 GFLOPS
Radeon R9 280
3,046 GFLOPS

shading units Subcomponents of the gpu, these run in parallel to enable fast pixel shading

The R240 is built with a half-height PCB and includes 320 shaders running at up to 780 MHz.
Radeon R9 280 | by Ryan-Shrout (Oct, 2013)

texture mapping units Built into each gpu, these resize and rotate bitmaps for texturing scenes

The Radeon R9 280X is based on the 28nm Tahiti die featuring 2048 Stream processors, 128 Texture mapping units and 32 Raster Operators.
Radeon R9 280 | by hassan-mujtaba (Oct, 2013)

render output processors GPU commponents responsible for transform pixels as they flow between memory buffers

ASUS Radeon R9 280X DirectCU II TOP is based on the Tahiti XT die, featuring 2048 cores, 128 TMUs and 32 ROPs.
Radeon R9 280 | by hassan-mujtaba (Oct, 2013)

compute units Discrete cores within the GPU

Specifications Full list of technical specs

gpu

Radeon R9 280X  vs
280 
GPU brand AMD AMD
GPU name Tahiti Tahiti
Market Desktop Desktop
Clock speed 850 MHz 850 MHz
Turbo clock speed 1,000 MHz 925 MHz
Is dual GPU No No
Reference card AMD Radeon R9 280X 850 MHz 3 GB None

raw performance

Shading units 2,048 1,792
Texture mapping units 128 112
Render output processors 32 32
Compute units 32 28
Pixel rate 27.2 GPixel/s 27.2 GPixel/s
Floating-point performance 3,482 GFLOPS 3,046 GFLOPS

memory

Radeon R9 280X  vs
280 
Memory clock speed 1,500 MHz 1,250 MHz
Effective memory clock speed 6,000 MHz 5,000 MHz
Memory bus 384 bit 384 bit
Memory 3,072 MB 3,072 MB
Memory type GDDR5 GDDR5

noise and power

TDP 250W 200W

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