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Differences What are the advantages of each

Front view of Radeon R9 M290X

Reasons to consider the
AMD Radeon R9 M290X

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Much lower TDP 100W vs 300W 3x lower TDP
Front view of Radeon R9 290X

Reasons to consider the
AMD Radeon R9 290X

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Much better floating-point performance 5,632 GFLOPS vs 2,176 GFLOPS More than 2.5x better floating-point performance
Higher clock speed 1,000 MHz vs 850 MHz Around 20% higher clock speed
Much higher pixel rate 64 GPixel/s vs 27.2 GPixel/s More than 2.2x higher pixel rate
Significantly higher texture rate 176 GTexel/s vs 68 GTexel/s More than 2.5x higher texture rate
Many more render output processors 64 vs 32 Twice as many render output processors
Significantly more shading units 2,816 vs 1,280 1536 more shading units
Significantly more texture mapping units 176 vs 80 96 more texture mapping units
Significantly more compute units 44 vs 20 24 more compute units
Significantly wider memory bus 512 bit vs 256 bit 2x wider memory bus
Higher turbo clock speed 1,000 MHz vs 900 MHz More than 10% higher turbo clock speed

Features Key features of the Radeon R9 M290X  vs 290X 

pixel rate Number of pixels a graphics card can render to the screen every second

Radeon R9 M290X
27.2 GPixel/s
Radeon R9 290X
64 GPixel/s
Similarly the texture and pixel fill rate have been upped by 30 and 90 percent respectively while the bandwidth is rated at 320 GB/s compared to 264 GB/s on the HD 7970.
Radeon R9 M290X | by hassan-mujtaba (Oct, 2013)

texture rate Speed at which a graphics card can perform texture mapping

Radeon R9 M290X
68 GTexel/s
Radeon R9 290X
176 GTexel/s
In addition to superior cooling and performance, SAPPHIRE has also implemented DUAL BIOS on the Tri-X models, ensuring that the cards boot and deliver maximum performance in systems with both UEFI and legacy BIOS implementations.
Radeon R9 M290X | by hassan-mujtaba (Dec, 2013)

floating point performance How fast the gpu can crunch numbers

Radeon R9 M290X
2,176 GFLOPS
Radeon R9 290X
5,632 GFLOPS
On the other hand 290X takes a hit to its double precision floating point (FP64) rate versus 280X, so in double precision scenarios it’s certainly going to enter with a larger handicap.
Radeon R9 M290X | by Ryan-Smith (Oct, 2013)

shading units Subcomponents of the gpu, these run in parallel to enable fast pixel shading

A recent founding by Planet3DNow reveals that the top Kaveri APU parts won’t be restricted to only 512 Stream processors and can feature upto 832 Stream processors.
Radeon R9 M290X | by hassan-mujtaba (Sep, 2013)

texture mapping units Built into each gpu, these resize and rotate bitmaps for texturing scenes

The Radeon R9 290X features a full blow Hawaii chip with 2816 Shaders (SPs), 44 ROPs (Raster Operators) and 176 TMUs (Texture mapping units).
Radeon R9 M290X | by hassan-mujtaba (Sep, 2013)

compute units Discrete cores within the GPU

The Radeon R9 290X is the flagship part featuring the full blown Hawaii chip with 2816 Stream Processors divided into 44 CUs (Compute Units).
Radeon R9 M290X | by hassan-mujtaba (Oct, 2013)

Specifications Full list of technical specs

gpu

Radeon R9 M290X  vs
290X 
GPU brand AMD AMD
GPU name Neptune Hawaii
Market Laptop Desktop
Clock speed 850 MHz 1,000 MHz
Turbo clock speed 900 MHz 1,000 MHz
Is dual GPU No No
Reference card None None

raw performance

Shading units 1,280 2,816
Texture mapping units 80 176
Render output processors 32 64
Compute units 20 44
Pixel rate 27.2 GPixel/s 64 GPixel/s
Texture rate 68 GTexel/s 176 GTexel/s
Floating-point performance 2,176 GFLOPS 5,632 GFLOPS

memory

Radeon R9 M290X  vs
290X 
Memory clock speed 1,200 MHz 1,250 MHz
Effective memory clock speed 4,800 MHz 5,000 MHz
Memory bus 256 bit 512 bit
Memory 4,096 MB 4,096 MB
Memory type GDDR5 GDDR5

noise and power

TDP 100W 300W

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